PT Special Metals Indonesia supplies Titanium, Nickel Alloys and exotic metal flanges in sizes ranging from 1/2” to 24”. All flat face flanges are supplied with serrated spiral finish per ASME/ASTM B16.5. “Alloy pipe flanges” is catch-all term we use to refer material grades which are not as carbon or stainless. Most nickel alloy varieties will fall under this category (Titanium, Hastelloy, Inconel, Monel, Incoloy, etc)Alloy name, UNS Number and flange type are the three requirements for manufacture of flanges and forged items to industry standards such as ASME B16.5 or non-standard dimensions as per end-user requirements. These alloys are primarily selected for use in high temperature and/or corrosive environments. We understand that special metal flanges are used in critical applications which need to withstand corrosive, harsh environment for many years.
Incoloy® alloys 800H and 800HT are utilized in high temperature services where resistance to creep and rupture is required.
|Flange Types||Flange Material|
|Welding Neck Flange||Titanium Grade-2|
|Stub Ends||Titanium Grade-7|
|Slip On Flanges||Alloy 800/800H|
|Threaded Flanges||Monel® 400|
|Socket Weld Flanges||Alloy 600|
|Lap Joint Flanges||Alloy C276|
|Blind Flange||Alloy 22|
|Forged Rings||Nickel Alloy 200|
|Custom Design||Incoloy® 800H / 800HT|
Titan Engineering Pte Ltd will be joining over 1,300 exhibitors from 49 countries/regions and the largest-ever line-up of 22 international group pavilions to showcase a wide array of equipment, innovations and services at OSEA2016. Besides gaining ideas for levelling up business capabilities and productivity, maximise your visit by checking out the advanced manufacturing technologies at OGmTech2016 and the latest subsea equipment and services at SUBSEA Asia 2016.
Over 20,000 trade attendees are expected to leverage the 4-day exhibition and conference to explore collaborations, network and get updated with industry developments.
Venue: Marina Bay Sands, Singapore.
Dates: 29-Nov-2016 to 02-Dec-2016
Timing: 10.00AM to 6.00PM.
Dates: 25-28 May, 2016.
Venue: Putra World Trade Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Booth No: 1324.
Malaysia's largest exhibition for the metalworking and machine tool industries, METALTECH has truly been the largest event for manufacturing sector. Titan will be participating in this event, visit our booth @ 1324.
MetalTech-2016 Malaysia Exhibition Pictures
|ASTM No.||Fe max||O max||N max||C max||H max||Pd||Al||V||Mo||Ni||Elongation||0.2% yield strength (min)||Tensile strength (min)|
Strategi untuk Pemesinan Titanium.
Karena semakin banyak toko pekerjaan yang cenderung ke pekerjaan kelas atas, mereka harus menghadapi tantangan memotong titanium menjadi logam yang sulit dikerjakan.
Berikut adalah beberapa cara untuk meningkatkan produktivitas Anda:
As they take on higher-end work, more and more U.S. job shops will have to master how to mill titanium, a lightweight metal that's hard to machine. That's because high-end parts, such as aircraft components and medical devices, are often made of this corrosion-resistant material. In fact, titanium and its alloys have already claimed a wide range of aerospace, industrial, marine and commercial applications. In addition, learning how to handle titanium is important because it provides insight into how shops can boost productivity without having to increase cutting speed.
Raising cutting speed is a big no-no when milling titanium because of two reasons. First, even a small increase in cutting speed can significantly exacerbate edge wear. And second, it can cause heat to build up quickly because of the metal's low thermal conductivity. In fact, excessively fast milling may even result in combustion.
But rest assured, says cutting tool supplier Kennametal, you can still increase the speed of production without boosting cutting speed. To increase your metal removal rate while keeping the cutting speed steady, Brian Hoefler, the company's product manager for milling, recommends selecting tooling with two important traits. First, it must be able to fully utilize the power of the current machine, and second, it must be able to offset any limitations the machine may have in terms of rigidity.
To choose the right tool, the first thing you must do is to consider the cutting tool material, says Hoefler. Carbide often a shop's go-to material when it comes to difficult jobs is not necessarily the best choice. Newer generation high-speed steel can be a more suitable selection. That's because carbide's superior wear resistance comes at the cost of bulk toughness. In other words, carbide is not very good at resisting fracturing and chipping both of which can result in tool failure in titanium milling. A tougher tool such as one made of high-speed steel can allow deeper cuts to be taken without the edges chipping. This more tolerant tool material especially on a less rigid machine tool will enable a shop to reach a higher metal removal rate through cut depth as opposed to cutting speed.
But carbide should not be ruled out entirely in milling titanium. It can be used for low-radial-immersion cuts, for example, in which cuts have a relatively light depth to control heat. In such applications, Hoefler recommends using a coated carbide tool. In particular, a carbide tool coated with titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN) is effective because it excels in maintaining its integrity and properties as the temperature in the cut rises. Heat actually activates its protective mechanism; the energy produced during machining frees the aluminum, which aids in the formation of a protective layer of aluminum oxide. Coated carbide tools could also be used when making heavier cuts. In such cases, a stronger coating such as titanium carbo-nitride (TiCN) can be utilized. This coating can resist micro-chipping.
Another effective strategy in milling titanium, says Hoefler, is increasing the number of effective edges to boost the metal removal rate. You can do this by selecting tools with very fine pitch or trying an approach called "plunge roughing," in which a shell mill or another appropriate milling tool, is fed into the work vertically.
Additionally, job shops can also increase the metal removal rate by minimizing chatter. This can be accomplished in three ways, says Hoefler. First, you have to make sure that both the interface between the tool and the toolholder and that between the toolholder and the spindle are kept as stiff as possible. Second, you should consider a tool with an eccentric relief or a "margin." This can provide process damping, which prevents chatter. And third, you can space cutting edges unevenly so they cannot hit the work with uniform frequency, thereby warding off chatter.
In short, with the correct tooling and a sound approach, milling a hard-to-machine metal such as titanium can be accomplished productively and cost-effectively.
Milling Titanium Alloys.
Milling titanium is like milling other hard-to-machine metals in that a small increase in cutting speed can lead to a big increase in edge wear.
Milling titanium is different from other metals because of the risk of heat build-up. Thanks to the metal's low thermal conductivity, overly aggressive milling may even pose a risk of combustion. With titanium, in other words, there may be more than one reason why the cutting speed can't be increased.
And yet the speed of production still can be increased. A shop milling titanium can raise its metal removal rate even while the cutting speed stays constant. Accomplishing this does not have to involve a more powerful or higher-end machine tool, but it does require tooling that can take advantage of the power of the existing machine. It also requires tooling that can compensate for any shortcomings the machine may have when it comes to rigidity.
One company that has studied titanium milling is cutting tool supplier Kennametal. And one advisor in this company who has consulted on many titanium milling applications is Brian Hoefler, product manager for milling. This article is based on his experience and recommendations.
Why is milling titanium worth the attention? There are at least two reasons. First, the material is used for high-end parts--not just components used in an aircraft's frame and engine, but also medical parts, for example. Shops able to thrive in the United States increasingly will migrate toward higher-end work, meaning that a growing percentage of U.S. shops will encounter this material.
That's one reason. An other, broader reason for covering titanium milling relates to the procedures for machining effectively when the material is difficult to cut or the available speed is low. Not every shop has access to high spindle speeds and feed rates. What do you do to achieve higher productivity when raising the cutting speed is not option?
Weigh Wear Resistance Against Toughness:
The fundamental choice of cutting tool material should be the first consideration, Mr. Hoefler says. Carbide might be the right choice. But shops are often so accustomed to viewing carbide as the superior cutting tool material that they routinely choose it for all difficult jobs. With titanium, newer generation high speed steel can be the better alternative.
The wear resistance that allows carbide to reach a high cutting speed comes at a price. That price is paid in "bulk toughness," or the ability of the tool to resist fracturing and chipping. Carbide in general is more brittle than high speed steel.
This is significant in titanium milling, because it is generally not edge wear that causes the tool to fail in this material. Rather, it's chipping or breakage that leads to failure. In addition, heat build-up may make it impossible to take advantage of the cutting speed that carbide makes available. These two factors both suggest that the trade-off in toughness may not be worth making. A tougher tool--a high speed steel tool, that is--can take a deeper cut without fear that shocks will cause the edges to chip. Particularly on a less rigid machine tool, this more forgiving tool material can let the shop realize a higher metal removal rate through depth of cut instead of through speed.
But oven this material presents a range of choices, Too few shops realize that there is more than one kind of high speed steel. While commodity high speed steel tools are made through a process that involves heat treatment, the alternative--powder metallurgy tooling--can be manufactured so that the steel has a more uniform structure with more closely controlled properties. Powder metallurgy tools are more expensive, but they generally offer better performance.
Sometimes carbide is needed. Low-radial-immersion cuts, for example, can allow a surprisingly high speed (see shaded box at left). In cuts such as these, it's not just wear resistance but wear resistance at high temperatures that's important. That requirement suggests a coated carbide tool.
Mr. Hoefler says titanium aluminum nitride (TiA1N) coated carbide is usually the best choice for machining titanium. Out of the handful of basic cutting tool coating types, TiA1N is clearly the best at maintaining its integrity and properties as the temperature in the cut gets hot. In fact, heat actually drives this coating's protection. Aluminum that is liberated from the coating through the energy of machining helps to form a protective layer of aluminum oxide. This layer reduces both thermal transfer and chemical diffusion between the tool and the workpiece. Coatings coming soon add even more aluminum to encourage this reaction. (See the shaded box below.)
When TiA1N is not the right choice, the reason why relates to vibration. Titanium carbo-nitride (TiCN) is a stronger coating that offers better resistance to micro-chipping. "When you're using an indexable insert, and you're taking a heavier cut on a less rigid machine, try TiCN--this may be the better choice," Mr. Hoefler says.
Number Of Effective Edges:
Even when the speed, the chip load and the depths of cut are all fixed, productivity can still be improved. To raise the metal removal rate, increase the number of effective edges.
On a helical mill, for example, choose the tool with the finest pitch possible. (A corncob tool may also work.) Counting edges in this way creates one more reason to consider high speed steel, because high speed steel generally can offer more cutting edges than a comparable tool that uses carbide.
Another way to achieve a higher number of effective edges is to take milling in a different direction. Through "plunge roughing," a shell mill, or another suitable milling tool, is fed into the work along the Z axis as if it were a drill. The parallel plunges are programmed to overlap, so the cutter is never completely surrounded by material and the chips have room to escape.
This approach can only be used for roughing, because the adjacent passes leave scallops between them that have to be milled away later. But because plunge roughing engages a larger number of the tool's cutting edges, the feed rate in inches per minute can be increased while the chip load remains constant. Feeding in Z also takes advantage of the machine's stiffness, because the various connections along the spindle that would tend to deflect along X or Y (such as the toolholder interface) are compressed in the Z direction. Along Z, the machine is more rigid. That means it may be possible even to increase the chip load.
Mr. Hoefler says, "Plunge roughing can be a very productive approach to material removal in high-strength metals. I don't think enough shops today are taking advantage of this."
Potential for deflection is also important because of another, more serious problem--chatter. Where chatter is concerned, milling titanium seems to offer the worst of both worlds. On the one hand, high forces are involved, making significant chatter more likely. On the other hand, high spindle speeds generally are not involved, making it impossible to find some "sweet spot" rpm value that can tune the chatter away.
Chatter, in fact, will decide the productivity of most titanium milling applications. The maximum achievable metal removal rate will occur not at the point where the horsepower is maxed out, but at the point where significant chatter begins. That's why it's important to construct the process so that it impedes chatter as much as possible.
Mr. Hoefler suggests any and all of these considerations:
1. Stiffness. The interface between the tool and the toolholder, and the interface between the toolholder and the spindle, both need to be made as stiff as possible. For the tool interface, shrink fit offers a solution. For the spindle, an HSK interface can offer better stiffness than a conventional conical taper.
2. Damping. A tool with an eccentric relief, or a "margin," can offer process damping that wards off chatter. When the tool deflects, this eccentric relief comes in contact with the workpiece and rubs. Not all materials take well to the rubbing; aluminum tends to adhere. But in titanium, the margin can make for an effective shock absorber.
3. Variable cutting edge spacing. This is an approach to tool design and chatter prevention that many shops may be unfamiliar with. Chatter results from the oscillation caused by the cutting edges hitting the work with a regular frequency. Some milling cutters use unequally spaced flutes to disrupt this regularity. Two cutting edges may be 72 degrees apart, while the distance to the next is 68 degrees and the distance to the edge after that is 75 degrees. The irregular spacing aims to avoid chatter by preventing a steady frequency from taking hold. Another option, patented by Kennametal, exploits a varying axial rake angle to achieve a similar vibration-disturbing effect.
10 Percent Radial Depth? Double The Speed
Shops cutting titanium are familiar with the practice of using low radial immersion to control heat. In a low-radial-immersion pass, the radial depth of cut is much less than the radius of the tool. As a result, every cutting edge spends more time out of the cut than in it, giving each edge relatively little time to heat up and much longer to cool down.
This practice works so well at controlling heat, says Kennametal's Brian Hoefler, that many users fail to realize how much extra speed they may be able to realize. The light depth of cut precludes a high metal removal rate, but the shop making finishing passes using this method can partially compensate by leaving the recommended speeds behind.
Mr. Hoefler suggests these rules of thumb:
* When radial depth is less than 25 percent of diameter, increase the sfm by 50 percent (over the nominal speed used for heavier cuts).
* When radial depth is less than 10 percent of diameter, increase the sfm by 100 percent.
Coming Soon: High-Aluminum Coating
The "A1" in TiA1N is where much of the effectiveness of this tool coating comes from. The aluminum in the coating helps to form a protective layer of aluminum oxide. More aluminum in the coating would make this mechanism even more effective.
Now, thanks to improved evaporation techniques used in manufacturing the coating, TiA1N with higher aluminum content will soon be available. The coating offers better hot hardness than previous versions of TiA1N without compromising toughness, Mr. Hoefler says. Kennametal hopes to introduce the new TiA1N during the first half of this year.
General Machining Tips: Many of titanium’s material and component design characteristics make it expensive to machine. A considerable amount of stock must be removed from primary forms such as forgings, plates, bars, etc. In some instance, as much as 50 to 90% of the primary form’s weight ends up as chips. (The complexity of some finished parts, such as bulkhead, makes difficult the use of near-net-shape methods that would minimize chip forming.) Maximum machining efficiency for titanium alloys is required to minimize the costs of stock removal.
Historically, titanium has been perceived as a material that is difficult to machine. Due to titanium’s growing acceptance in many industries, along with the experience gained by progressive fabricators, a broad base of titanium machining knowledge now exists. Manufacturers now know that, with proper procedures, titanium can be fabricated using techniques no more difficult than those used for machining 316 stainless steel.
Stories about problems encountered when machining titanium have usually originated in shops working with aircraft alloys. The fact is that commercially pure grades of titanium (ASTM B, Grades 1, 2, 3, and 4) with tensile strengths of 241 to 552 MPa (35 to 80 ksi) machine much easier than aircraft alloys (i.e. ASTM B, Grade 5: Ti-6AL-4V).
With higher alloy content and hardness, the machinability of titanium alloys by traditional chip-making methods generally decreases. (This is true of most other metals.) At a hardness level over 38 RC (350 BHN) increased difficulty in operations such as drilling tapping, milling, and broaching can be expected. In general, however, if the particular characteristics of titanium are taken into account, the machining of titanium and its alloys should not present undue problems.
Machining of titanium alloys requires cutting forces only slightly higher than those needed to machine steels, but these alloys have metallurgical characteristics that make them somewhat more difficult to machine than steels of equivalent hardness. The beta alloys are the most difficult titanium alloys to machine. When machining conditions are selected properly for a specific alloy composition and processing sequence, reasonable production rates of machining can be achieved at acceptable cost levels.
Care must be exercised to avoid loss of surface integrity, especially during grinding; otherwise a dramatic loss in mechanical behavior such as fatigue can result. To date, techniques such as high-speed machining have not improved the machinability of titanium. A breakthrough appears to require the development of new tool materials.
The fact that titanium sometimes is classified as difficult to machine by traditional methods in part can be explained by the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of the metal. For example:
Titanium is a poor conductor of heat. Heat, generated by the cutting action, does not dissipate quickly. Therefore, most of the heat is concentrated on the cutting edge and the tool face.
Titanium has a strong alloying tendency or chemical reactivity with materials in the cutting tools at tool operating temperatures. This causes galling, welding, and smearing along with rapid destruction of the cutting tool.
Titanium has a relatively low modulus of elasticity, thereby having more “springiness” than steel. Work has a tendency to move away from the cutting tool unless heavy cuts are maintained or proper backup is employed. Slender parts tend to deflect under tool pressures, causing chatter, tool rubbing, and tolerance problems. Rigidity of the entire system is consequently very important, as is the use of sharp, properly shaped cutting tools.
Titanium’s fatigue properties are strongly influenced by a tendency to surface damage if certain machining techniques are used. Care must be exercised to avoid the loss of surface integrity, especially during grinding. (This characteristic is described in greater detail below.)
Titanium’s work-hardening characteristics are such that titanium alloys demonstrate a complete absence of “built-up edge.” Because of the lack of a stationary mass of metal (built-up edge) ahead of the cutting tool, a high shearing angle is formed. This causes a thin chip to contact a relatively small area on the cutting tool face and results in high bearing loads per unit area. The high bearing force, combined with the friction developed by the chip as it rushes over the bearing area, results in a great increase in heat on a very localized portion of the cutting tool. Furthermore, the combination of high bearing forces and heat produces cratering action close to the cutting edge, resulting in rapid tool breakdown.
With respect to titanium’s fatigue properties, briefly noted in the above list, the following details are of interest.
As stated, loss of surface integrity must be avoided. If this precaution is not observed, a dramatic loss of mechanical behavior (such as fatigue) can result. Even proper grinding practices using conventional parameters (wheel speed, downfeed, etc.) may result in appreciably lower fatigue strength due to surface damage. The basic fatigue properties of many titanium alloys rely on a favorable compressive surface stress induced by tool action during machining. Electromechanical removal of material, producing a stress-free surface, can cause a debit from the customary design fatigue strength properties. (These results are similar when mechanical processes such as grinding are involved, although the reasons are different.)
The term “machining” has broad application and refers to all types of metal removal and cutting processes. These include turning, boring, milling, drilling, reaming, tapping, both sawing and gas cutting, broaching, planing, gear hobbing, shaping, shaving, and grinding.
The technology supporting the machining of titanium alloys basically is very similar to that for other alloy materials. Efficient metal machining requires access to data relating the machining parameters of a cutting tool to the work material for the given operation. The important parameters include:
• Tool life
• Power requirements
• Cutting tools and fluids
Subsequent paragraphs discuss these parameters in general terms.
Tool-life data have been developed experimentally for a wide variety of titanium alloys. A common way of representing such data is Showing tool life (as time) against cutting speed (fpm) for a given cutting tool material at a constant feed and depth in relation to Ti-6Al-4V. It can be seen that at a high cutting speed, tool life is extremely short. As the cutting speed decreases, tool life dramatically increases.
Titanium alloys are very sensitive to changes in feed and speed. Machining community generally operates machine tools at cutting speeds & feeds which are provided by tool manufacturers with focus to longer tool life. Curve fitting of tool life to feed, speed, and other machining parameters is commonly being done by means of computer techniques. However, in cases where no data base exists, certain rules of thumb should be recognized. For example, when cutting titanium, a high shear angle is produced between the workpiece and chip, resulting in a thin chip flowing at high velocity over the tool face. High temperatures develop, and, since titanium has low thermal conductivity, the chips have a tendency to gall and weld themselves to the tool cutting edges. This speeds up tool wear and failure. When dealing with high-fixed-cost machine tools production output may be much more important than a cutting tool’s life! It thus may be wise to work a tool at its maximum capacity, and then replace it as soon as its cutting efficiency starts to drop off noticeably, ereby maintaining uptime as much as possible.
When machining titanium in circumstances in which production costs are not of paramount concern, it is still unsound practice to allow tools to run to destruction. The other extreme, premature tool changing, may result in a low number of pieces per tool grind, but the lower the tool wear, the less expensive the regrinding.
Ideally, a tool should be permitted to continue cutting as long as possible without risking damage to the tool or the work but with the retention of surface integrity. The only way to find a safe stopping point is to check a few runs by counting the pieces produced and inspecting the surface finish, dimensions, and surface integrity. In this manner it can be established how many acceptable pieces can be produced before the tool fails.
The high strength, low weight, outstanding corrosion resistance possessed by titanium and titanium alloys have led to a wide and diversified range of successful applications which demand high levels of reliable performance in surgery and medicine as well as in aerospace, automotive, chemical plant, power generation, oil and gas extraction, sports, and other major industries.
More than 1000 tonnes (2.2 million pounds) of titanium devices of every description and function are implanted in patients worldwide every year. Requirements for joint replacement continue to grow as people live longer or damage themselves more in by hard sports play or jogging, or are seriously injured in road traffic and other accidents. Light, strong and totally bio-compatible, titanium is one of few materials that naturally match the requirements for implantation in the human body
Medical grade titanium alloys have a significantly higher strength to weight ratio than competing stainless steels. The range of available titanium alloys enables medical specialists designers to select materials and forms closely tailored to the needs of the application. The full range of alloys reaches from high ductility commercially pure titanium used where extreme formability is essential, to fully heat treatable alloys with strength above 1300 MPa, (190ksi). Shape-memory alloys based on titanium, further extend the range of useful properties and applications. A combination of forging or casting, machining and fabrication are the process routes used for medical products. Surface engineering frequently plays a significant role, extending the performance of titanium several times beyond its natural capability.
Titanium Performance in Medical Applications
'Fit and forget', is an essential requirement where equipment in critical applications, once installed, cannot readily be maintained or replaced. There is no more challenging use in this respect than implants in the human body. Here, the effectiveness and reliability of implants, and medical and surgical instruments and devices is an essential factor in saving lives and in the long term relief of suffering and pain. Implantation represents a potential assault on the chemical, physiological and mechanical structure of the human body. There is nothing comparable to a metallic implant in living tissue. Most metals in body fluids and tissue are found in stable organic complexes. Corrosion of implanted metal by body fluids, results in the release of unwanted metallic ions, with likely interference in the processes of life. Corrosion resistance is not sufficient of itself to suppress the body's reaction to cell toxic metals or allergenic elements such as nickel, and even in very small concentrations from a minimum level of corrosion, these may initiate rejection reactions. Titanium is judged to be completely inert and immune to corrosion by all body fluids and tissue, and is thus wholly bio-compatible.
The natural selection of titanium for implantation is determined by a combination of most favourable characteristics including immunity to corrosion, bio-compatibility, strength, low modulus and density and the capacity for joining with bone and other tissue - osseointegration. The mechanical and physical properties of titanium alloys combine to provide implants which are highly damage tolerant. The human anatomy naturally limits the shape and allowable volume of implants. The lower modulus of titanium alloys compared to steel is a positive facotr in reducing bone resorbtion. Two further parameters define the usefulness of the implantable alloy, the notch sensitivity, - the ratio of tensile strength in the notched vs un-notched condition, and the resistance to crack propagation, or fracture toughness. Titanium scores well in both cases. Typical NS/TS ratios for titanium and its alloys are 1.4 - 1.7 (1.1 is a minimum for an acceptable implant material). Fracture toughness of all high strength implantable alloys is above 50MPam-1/2 with critical crack lengths well above the minimum for detection by standard methods of non-destructive testing.
Titanium Medical Specifications:
Forms and material specifications are detailed in a number of international and domestic specifications, including ASTM and BS7252/ ISO 5832 examples below:
|ASTM||BS/ISO||Alloy(s) designation (s)|
|F67||Part 2||Unalloyed titanium - CP Grades 1 - 4||(ASTM F1341 specifies wire)|
|F136||Part 3||Ti-6Al-4V ELI wrought||(ASTM F620 specifies ELI forgings)|
|F1472||Part 3||Ti-6Al-4V standard grade (SG) wrought||(F1108 specifies SG castings)|
|F1295||Part 11||Ti-6Al-7Nb wrought|
|-||Part 10||Ti-5Al-2.5Fe wrought|
|F1580||-||CP and Ti6Al-4V SG powders for coating implants|
Bone and Joint Replacement:
About one million patients worldwide are treated annually for total replacement of arthritic hips and knee joints. The prostheses come in many shapes and sizes. Hip joints normally have a metallic femoral stem and head which locates into an ultrahigh molecular weight low friction polyethylene socket, both secured in position with polymethyl methacrylate bone cement. Some designs, including cementless joints, use roughened bioactive surfaces (including hydroxyapatite) to stimulate osseointegration, limit resorption and thus increase the implant lifetime for younger recipients. Internal and external bone-fracture fixation provides a further major application for titanium as spinal fusion devices, pins, bone-plates, screws, intramedullary nails, and external fixators.
A major change in restorative dental practice worldwide has been possible through the use of titanium implants. A titanium 'root' is introduced into the jaw bone with time subsequently allowed for osseointegration. The superstructure of the tooth is then built onto the implant to give an effective replacement.
Maxillo and Cranio/facial treatments:
Surgery to repair facial damage using the patients own tissue cannot always obtain the desired results. Artificial parts may be required to restore the ability to speak or eat as well as for cosmetic appearance, to replace facial features lost through damage or disease. Osseointegrated titanium implants meeting all the requirements of bio-compatibility and strength have made possible unprecedented advances in surgery, for the successful treatment of patients with large defects and hitherto highly problematic conditions.
Titanium is regularly used for pacemaker cases and defibrillators, as the carrier structure for replacement heart valves, and for intra-vascular stents.
Titanium is suitable for both temporary and long term external fixations and devices as well as for orthotic calipers and artificial limbs, both of which use titanium extensively for its light weight, toughness and corrosion resistance.
A wide range of surgical instruments are made in titanium. The metal's lightness is a positive aid to reducing any fatigue of the surgeon. Instruments are frequently anodised to provide a non reflecting surface, essential in microsurgical operations, for example in eye surgery. Titanium instruments withstand repeat sterilisation without compromise to edge or surface quality, corrosion resistance or strength. Titanium is non magnetic, and there is therefore no threat of damage to small and sensitive implanted electronic devices.
In all fields of engineering, but nowhere more than in marine and offshore service, designers, fabricators and end users are readier than ever before to consider titanium for a continually widening range of applications. Today, with several thousand tons of titanium in service offshore, old - and false - notions about cost, availability, and fabrication are less likely than ever to prejudice engineers who can see clearly for themselves all of the excellent benefits which titanium brings to marine and offshore operations. Titanium is not an 'exotic' metal, it is relatively inexpensive and widely available. A large number of suppliers and fabricators regularly supply components and equipment at prices which emphasis that the metal is easier and less expensive to fabricate and weld than most alloy steels and nickel alloys. The fact is that for sea water applications there is no other material which can approach, economically or technically, the performance offered by titanium.
Titanium is as strong as steel, yet 45% lighter. The high strength, low density and corrosion resistance of titanium contribute positively towards cost reduction. Weight saving is of great importance for offshore platforms. A weight reduction of one tonne topside saves more than £100,000, NOK 1 million, in steel on the sub-sea jacket. All up weight on semi submersible platforms including tension leg platforms (TLPs) is equally critical, the reduction in hang off weight can be matched by a 3 - 5 times weight reduction in the platform structure, flotation and mooring system. On fast ferries weight reduction is a critical factor contributing to increased payload and speed with reduced fuel consumption.
Titanium requires no corrosion allowance so equipment can be designed to satisfy the minimum requirements for mechanical strength and handling. The outstanding corrosion resistance of titanium even in heavily polluted sea water, offshore produced fluids and all but a few non produced fluids is due to the metal's stable, tenacious and permanent oxide film. In flowing or static sea water at temperatures up to 130°C, titanium surfaces are immune to corrosion and resist erosion in conditions which cause rapid deterioration of other commonly used metals and alloys. Titanium is immune to crevice corrosion up to at least 70°C in sea water, conditions in which some stainless steels are limited to 10°C.
The lessons of past expensive errors made in selection of less serviceable alloys for corrosion resistant duties have been well learnt. Offshore the cost of replacement is several times that of a similar onshore facility. Likewise the penalties are ever increasing on military and commercial vessels for equipment failure and unscheduled outages.
Specification of titanium from the outset, coupled with cost effective design, fabrication, installation and use is a fundamental element in safe, and reliable performance. This is as true for ships and other vessels, where high availability and reduced maintenance costs are an essential requirement, as for offshore installations which are planned for service lives of up to 70 years. Titanium will frequently be competitive on first cost, but will reliably give the lowest cost of ownership and always be winner of the life cycle cost contest.
Corrosion Performance of Titanium Alloys in Natural and Polluted Seawater Relative to Other Alloys
|Mode of Corrosion||Copper based alloys||Stainless Steel 316||Stainless Steel 6 Mo and Duplex||Titanium Alloys|
|Crevice Corrosion||Susceptible||Susceptible||Susceptible (>25°C)||Resistant (<80°C)|
|Stress Corrosion||Susceptible1||Susceptible (>60°C)||Resistant||Resistant|
|Microbiological Corrosion (MIC)||Susceptible||Susceptible||Susceptible||Immune|
|Erosion Corrosion||Susceptible||Resistant||Resistant||Highly Resistant|
1. Dependent on Pollution level/sea water chemistry
2. Grades 7,11,12, 16,17,20,21,24, 28,29 resistant to at least 200°C
3. Standard Grade 5 has finite susceptibility, Grade 23 (ELI) has improved K1SCC values
TITANIUM OFFSHORE - CURRENT APPLICATIONS
The number and variety of applications of titanium and titanium alloys offshore continues to increase. From no more than a few hundreds of kilos in chlorination systems and heat exchangers twenty years ago, total consumption now approaches three thousand tons, principally as sea water and process fluid management systems and heat exchangers. These major applications are complemented by a wide range of miscellaneous duties, many critical to platform operation and safety.
Offshore engineers concerned at continuing failures of stainless steel and copper based alloys designated for sea water use have increasingly turned to titanium. Titanium is available at competitive and stable prices and there has been supporting growth of fabrication industry experience and capability to supply a wide range of titanium products, particularly pipes and fittings and systems required by the marine and offshore industries. A mature body of titanium fabricators has long existed in the EC Countries, serving the European chemical, petrochemical and power plant as well as the growing offshore applications market. Since 1990 some fifteen Norwegian fabricators have developed the ability to supply titanium, taking only a relatively short time to become skilled in all aspects of machining, bending, and welding. he development of cold bending of thin wall titanium pipework has provided a breakthrough in the overall competitiveness of titanium systems.
Selected Offshore Applications of Titanium
|Application||Company||Project||Titanium alloy grade|
|Taper Stress Joints||Placid Oil||Green Canyon||23 (Ti-6Al-4V ELI)|
|Taper Stress Joints||Ensearch||Garden Banks||23|
|Taper Stress Joints||Oryx Energy||Neptune||23|
|Fire Water Systems
- " -
|Norsk Hydro||Troll B (Oil)
|2 (Commercially Pure)|
|Fire Water Systems||Elf Petroleum||Froy TCP||2|
|Fire Water Systems||Statoil||Sleipnir West, Siri||2|
|Fire Water Systems||Statoil||Norne||2|
|Sea Water Lift Pipes
- " -
- " -
|Ballast Water Systems||Mobil||Statfjord A/B
|Ballast Water Systems||Hibernia||2|
|Penetration Sleeves||Statoil||Sleipnir West||2|
|Penetration Sleeves||Norsk Hydro||Oseberg||2|
|Fresh Water Pipework||Elf||Frigg||2|
|Sea Water Pipework||Esso||Jotun||2|
|Sea Water Pipework||Norsk Hydro||Njord, Visund||2 (110 tons)|
|Seawater systems, fire, ballast and
produced water Pipework
|Statoil||Asgard B||2 (300 tons)|
|Gravity Based System||Statoil||Troll A (Gas)||2(500 tons)|
|Drilling Riser||Statoil (Conoco)||Heidrun||23|
|Booster Lines||Statoil (Conoco)||Heidrun||9 (Ti-3Al-2.5V)|
|Anchor System Pipework||Statoil (Conoco)||Heidrun||2|
|Penetrations and Manholes||Statoil (Conoco)||Heidrun||2|
Because of high strength, high toughness and exceptional erosion/corrosion resistance, titanium is also currently being used for:
• Submarine ball valves
• Fire pumps
• Heat exchangers
• Hull materials for deep sea submersibles
• Water jet propulsion systems
• Propeller shafts and propellers
• Exhaust stack liners
• Naval armour
• Underwater manipulators
• High strength fasteners
• Yacht fittings
• Shipboard of cooling and piping systems
• Many other components in ship designs.
The first all-titanium fishing boat was launched in Japan in 1998. Weighing 4.6 tonnes the 12.5m (41ft.) long vessel can travel at 30 knots with improved fuel efficiency. Operational cost savings include no necessity for hull painting and easier removal of biofouling. The progressive degradation of glass fibre boat hulls by repeated fouling and cleaning is an ongoing penalty for the Japanese inshore fishing fleet.
HIGH PRESSURE SYSTEMS
Riser piping, taper stress joints, production tubulars and liners, flowlines, and similar high pressure systems provide applications where, as service life requirements are extended and operational and safety demands become more exacting, titanium can outperform steel and non bonded flexible pipe The concept of using titanium in such applications is not new.
A full scale taper stress joint was supplied to the Gulf of Mexico for Placid Oil in the Green Canyon field in 1987. The joint was retrieved in 1989. Despite the brevity of this period of service, the installation lacked nothing of the most severe test conditions, being exposed to 100 year wave loading through the occurrence of the Gulf loop currents which persisted for over two weeks during 1988. The titanium alloy joint survived undamaged in any way, and following a period of storage was refurbished and was installed offshore for Ensearch (Garden Banks) in July 1995. A total of fifteen Ti-6Al-4V taper stress joints have been delivered for the Oryx Neptune field.
Titanium taper stress joints (TSJ) are typically one half to one third the length, one quarter the weight, and less expensive than their functional counterparts in steel.
Titanium is favoured over heavier more costly non bonded flexible pipe where:
• Weight loading on the vessel or platform is critical
• Production side pressure and temperature <125°C
• Larger pipe diameters
• Collapse limitations in deep water
• Performance reliability and long service are critical.
Titanium is favoured over heavier stiffer and less corrosion resistant steel piping where:
• Vessel motions are great and sea state severe
• Fatigue and bending stresses are a potential problem
• Vortex induced vibration fatigue is a potential problem
• Weight loading on the vessel or platform is critical
• Shallow waters place high bend loads on steel risers
• Corrosive and hot brines and sour fluids are produced.
The continuing discoveries of deep water offshore oil and gas fields places increased emphasis on the development of a long term technical and cost effective solution for riser pipe materials. Interest is concentrated on titanium for its favourable strength weight ratio, flexibility, and low density. Titanium will not influence, interact with or contaminate the natural marine environment.
Minimising weight is an increasingly critical issue for floating platforms as water depth increases. The development of composite risers using a titanium liner of reduced thickness in conjunction with fibre reinforcement marks a move towards further reduction of weight compared to all metal systems
The world's first all titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4VELI - ASTM Grade 23) riser is the 400 metre long drilling riser on the Heidrun tension leg platform. Titanium provides for a substantial reduction of topside weight, reduced tensioning requirements and the elimination of buoyancy elements and the expensive and cumbersome flex joints, both traditionally used with steel drilling risers. Grade 23 is also the nominated alloy for the 711 mm (28 inch diameter x 670m (2,200 ft) long free hanging caternary combined gas export and surface pig launching riser for the Asgard platform. Increasing temperature and pressure, (the Heidrun drilling riser is rated to 31 MPa (4500 psi)), and the expectation that the gas and oil extracted will become 'sour' in the longer term make titanium a very attractive option. Existing non bonded flexible pipe cannot tolerate the predicted higher product temperatures or thermal cycling. The range of titanium alloys includes the capability to handle product temperatures in excess of 200°C, and thermal cycling is not a problem
The ability to recycle used riser pipes with a relatively high recovery value at the end of their planned life is a further bonus in the favourable life cycle cost equation for titanium.
Power Plant Condensers:
Titanium has been proven by the power industry to be the most reliable of all surface condenser tubing materials. Several hundred million metres of thin wall welded titanium tube are now in service worldwide. Titanium is immune to all of the processes of corrosion which occur in condenser operation, and which continue to cause damage or threaten operational efficiency for units tubed with less corrosion resistant metals and alloys. Design to optimise the engineering properties of titanium is possible for new condensing equipment. The retubing of existing units may require modifications to the condenser to compensate for the lower modulus and density of titanium as well as its possible influence as a cathode in a mixed metal system. Experience gathered from hundreds of condenser units operating in widely varying conditions has progressively exposed practices which are prejudicial to the normal long life expectation of titanium tubes. Condenser performance is a significant factor in the overall operational efficiency of power plant. The widespread use of low cost titanium welded tube which is immune to corrosion has virtually eliminated condenser problems from power station economics.
Flue Gas Desulphurisation:
More than 20 years operational experience with wet FGD scrubbers, ductwork and stacks, has shown that titanium can resist the highly corrosive conditions encountered continuously or intermittently in the FGD process. The aggressive conditions experienced include wet/dry interfaces, acidic condensates and flyash laden deposits enriched in chloride and fluoride species.
The largest single FGD plant installation in Europe is the Drax plant of National Power PLC in North Yorkshire, England. The three 260 metre (850ft) high concrete flues of the stack are lined with a total of over 24,000 square metres (258,000ft¬≤) of Grade 2 commercially pure titanium sheet. One flue per year was lined in 1992, '93 and '94 respectively. A recent inspection (1999) revealed no significant corrosive attack on the titanium after seven years exposure to a full range of operating conditions.
Steam Turbine Blading:
Titanium alloys are used for advanced steam turbine blades. The advantages are weight reduction, (56% the density of 12 Cr steel), and corrosion resistance. Titanium resists attack by reducing acid chlorides in condensate which forms at the Wilson line.
Titanium is additionally resistant to corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking. Hydrogen absorption is not a concern at the temperatures in the L-1 and L region of turbines. As with other blading alloys, titanium requires a leading edge shield to improve the resistance to water droplet erosion.
Titanium pertama kali digunakan di pabrik kimia pada pertengahan 1960-an. Ketahanannya yang luar biasa terhadap korosi dalam lingkungan oksidasi klorida, air laut dan bahan kimia agresif lainnya dengan cepat terbentuk. Dalam beberapa proses titanium adalah pilihan pertama dan satu-satunya untuk kinerja pabrik yang efektif dan tingkat biaya siklus hidup yang dapat diterima.
Biaya material dan pembuatannya memiliki peralatan yang stabil dan titanium, yang dirancang dengan baik dapat bersaing dengan sebagian besar paduan tahan korosi yang lebih umum tetapi biasanya kurang efektif.
Kekuatan tinggi dan kerapatan rendah dari titanium dan paduannya dari pertama memastikan peran positif untuk logam dalam aplikasi aero-engine dan badan pesawat. Sulit membayangkan bagaimana tingkat kinerja saat ini, tenaga mesin untuk rasio berat, kekuatan bingkai udara, kecepatan dan jangkauan pesawat serta faktor-faktor penting lainnya dapat dicapai tanpa titanium.
Paduan titanium mampu beroperasi pada suhu mulai dari nol hingga 600° C. Mereka digunakan dalam mesin untuk cakram, bilah, poros dan selubung dari kipas depan ke tahap terakhir dari kompresor bertekanan tinggi.
Paduan dengan kekuatan hingga 1200 MPa digunakan dalam berbagai aplikasi kerangka udara mulai dari pengencang kecil seberat beberapa gram hingga truk pendarat dan balok sayap besar dengan berat hingga 1 ton. Saat ini titanium membuat hampir 10% dari berat kosong pesawat seperti Boeing 777.
|More widely used alloys||Attribute/applications|
|Ti-6Al-4V atau Titanium Grade-5 atau Ti64||Paduan kekuatan tinggi tujuan umum yang sangat populer.|
|Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo (6-2-4-2)||Creep and oxidation resistant engine alloy|
|Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo (6-2-4-6)||Creep and oxidation resistant engine alloy|
|Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Zr-4Mo (Beta C)||Beta alloy with established spring applications|
|Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al (10-2-3)||Beta forging alloy used for 777 landing gear|
|Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al (15-3-3-3)||High strength heat treatable beta sheet alloy|
|Ti-3Al-2.5V||Medium strength alloy used for hydraulic tubing|
|Ti-4Al-4Mo-2Sn (550)||Higher strength heat treatable airframe and engine alloy|
|Ti-5.5Al-3.5Sn-3Zr-1Nb (829)||Advanced engine alloy, creep and oxidation resistant|
|Ti-5.8Al-4Sn-3.5Zr-0.7Nb (834)||Advanced engine alloy, creep and oxidation resistant|
|Ti-5Al-2Sn-4Mo-2Zr-4Cr (Ti 17)||Advanced engine alloy, creep and oxidation resistant|
|Ti-15Mo-3Nb-3Al-0.2Si (21S)||Oxidation and corrosion resistant beta sheet alloy|
|The following alloys are of increasing importance|
|Ti-6Al-2Zr-2Sn-2Mo-2Cr-0.25Si (6.22.22)||Airframe alloy for F22 and JSF projects|
|Ti-4.5Al-3V-2Mo-2Fe (SP 700)||Competitor for Ti-6-4 for SPF and general use|
|The remaining alloys tend to be less widely used but are none the less important and may be critical in their application to specific fully validated components.|
|Ti-2Cu (230)||Heat treatable sheet alloy|
|Ti-4Al-4Mo-4Sn-0.5Si (551)||High strength airframe alloy, very limited availability|
|Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V (8-1-1)||Early alloy now mainly for spares and replacements|
|Ti-6-6-2||High strength alloy with specific earlier applications|
|Ti-11Sn-5Zr-2.5Al-1Mo-0.2Si (679)||Earlier engine alloy rarely specified in new programmes|
|Ti-6Al-5Zr-0.5Mo-0.25Si (685)||Engine alloy now mainly for spares and replacements|
- Chemical Analysis
- Saw Cutting
- Precision Cutting
- Spark EDM
- Water-Jet Cutting
- Center-less Grinding
- Ultrasonic Testing
- Plate Milling
|ASTM Grade||Common Name||Tensile Strength
|Modulus of Elasticity
|1||Unalloyed Ti ("Pure") 35A - CP1||35||25||14.9|
|2||Unalloyed Ti ("Pure") 50A - CP2||50||40||14.9|
|3||Unalloyed Ti ("Pure") 65A - CP3||65||55||14.9|
|4||Unalloyed Ti ("Pure") 80A - CP4||80||70||15|
Unalloyed titanium typically contains between 99%-99.5% titanium, with the balance being made up of iron and the interstitial impurity elements hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen. The microstructure of unalloyed titanium consists of grains of alpha phase, with the possibility of small amounts of beta phase. The ‚Äúunalloyed‚Äù grades of titanium are generally less expensive, and are easier to fabricate than alloyed, and generally stronger grades of titanium.
ALPHA AND NEAR-ALPHA ALLOYS
Titanium alloys have a fully alpha structure only if they contain alpha stabilizers such as aluminum, tin, and oxygen. These elements also act as solid solution strengtheners. The typical all-alpha alloy is Ti-5Al-2.5Sn. Near-alpha alloys include Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr- 2Mo.
ALPHA-PLUS BETA (α-β) ALLOYS
These alloys contain both alpha stabilizers and beta stabilizers. These alloys can be heat treated to develop a range of micro-structures. The alpha-beta alloys are moderately heat treatable and weldable. The alpha-beta alloys have greater hardenability and thus can be through-hardened in thicker section by heat treatment. The most important α-β alloy is Ti-6Al-4V. The other α-β alloys include Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn and Ti-6Al-2Sn- 4Zr-6Mo.
Beta alloys contain a balance of beta stabilizers to alpha stabilizers, which is sufficiently high that a fully beta phase microstructure can be retained on cooling. Their generally high strength, high toughness, and improved formability, as compared with alpha-beta alloys, provides an attractive combination of properties. However, processing and material costs are often quite high. Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Zr-4Mo is an example of a commonly utilized beta alloy.
Titanium Grade 1: UNS R50250 (ASTM B265 / ASTM B337 / ASTM B338 / ASTM B348)
Commercially Pure Grade 1 is one of the softest and most ductile grades exhibiting the greatest formability. It has excellent corrosion resistance property and is used in wide variety of applications. This grade material is mainly used in Marine & chemical industries where the parts are subjected to very harsh environments. This material is also used for fabricating anodes for cathodic protection applications.
Titanium Grade 2: UNS R50400 (AMS 4902 /AMS 4941/ AMS 4942 /ASTM B265 /ASTM B337 /ASTM B338 /ASTM B348 )
Commercially Pure Grade 2 is slightly stronger than Grade 1 but equally corrosion resistant against most applications. Grade 2 Extremely high resistance to oxidising or neutral media. Excellent resistance to sea water and solutions polluted by chlorides. Best strength to weight ratio in any corrosion resistant material. This grade is one of the most common Titanium Grades and is used for Heat Exchangers, Condenser Tubing & Bleaching plants in paper industry, offshore oil installation water pipe lines.
Titanium Grade 3: UNS R50550 (AMS 4900 / ASTM B337 / ASTM B338)
This CP3 grade unalloyed grade offers slightly higher mechanicals when compared with Commercially Pure Grade 2 while displaying similar ductility and formability.Generally used where corrosion resistance is a major design factor in chemical production components, marine and airframe applications.
Titanium Grade 4: AMS 4901 / AMS 4921 / ASTM B265 / ASTM B348
The highest strength pure unalloyed Titanium. High oxygen, extra high strength. Grade 4 displays the highest strength of all the unalloyed CP grades. It combines excellent corrosion resistance with good formability and weldability. While mill availability is not a problem, distributor availability is limited and should be a consideration in alloy selection. Mainly used in hydraulic and instrumentation tubing. Generally chosen for its corrosion resistance in a variety of chemical process equipment as well as marine and airframe applications.
Titanium Grade 5: UNS R56400 (AMS 4911 / AMS 4920 / AMS 4928 / ASTM B265)
Ti-6Al-4V is the most commonly used Titanium Grade, its high strength; lightweight and corrosion resistance enables this grade to be used in many applications. The Industries for which this material is generally used are Aerospace, Marine, Medical and Chemical Processing. This non-magnetic alpha-beta alloy is the workhorse alloy of the titanium industry. The alloy is fully heat treatable in section sizes up to 15mm and is used up to approximately 400°C (750°F). Since it is the most commonly used alloy over 70% of all alloy grades melted are a sub-grade of Ti6Al4V, its uses span many aerospace air-frame and engine component uses and also major non-aerospace applications in the marine, offshore and power generation industries in particular.
Bio-compatibility: Excellent, especially when direct contact with tissue or bone is required. Ti-6Al-4V's poor shear strength makes it undesirable for bone screws or plates. It also has poor surface wear properties and tends to seize when in sliding contact with itself and other metals. Surface treatments such as nitriding and oxidizing can improve the surface wear properties.
Titanium Grade 6: 5Al 2.5Sn UNS R52400 (ASTM B265/ASME SB-265/AMS 4910/AMS 4926)
Titanium 5-2.5 offers high temperature stability, strength, oxidation and creep resistance.
Titanium Grade 7: UNS R52400 (ASME SB-265/ASME SB-348)
Commercially Pure Grade 7 is very similar to Grade 2 but with a Palladium content. This content enables this material to be used in very low Temperatures. Applications are Power Generation and Chemical Processing.
Titanium Grade 8: UNS R56320 (ASTM B265 / AMS 4943 / AMS 4944 / AMS 4945)
Ti-3Al-2.4V has exceptional corrosion resistance and can be used in higher temperatures that Grade 1 through to Grade 4. The grade has many applications in Aerospace, Medical, Marine, Automotive, Transportation and Chemical Processing.
PT Special Metals Indonesia has the shearing facility to shear titanium sheets upto 3mm Thick. Send us your part dimensions, we will be happy to create your parts for you by shearing process.
• Annual Blanket Order- We Provide JIT material availability that can reduce your cost with stable raw material prices. You can place order one or two years based on your sales forecast, we will fix price and reserve material for you. You can draw your materials any time you need - JIT for your production, thus reducing your raw material holding costs.
• Finished Goods – Stock finished goods at nominal annual stocking charge to dramatically reduce impact of what can be historical double-digit monthly price increases.
• Semi-Finished Goods – Inventory customer owned ingot or semi-finished goods at Special Metals Indonesia to allow flexibility for us to subsequently finish to customer designated final size or sizes as the forecast requirement becomes more readily apparent to the customer.
• Indices Pricing – Special Metal Indonesia has the ability to provide public indices for long-term pricing of non-titanium metals. Additionally Special Metals Indonesia can provide a mutually agreed upon mechanism for validation of marketplace price of titanium for future price changes over the longer term either up or down.
• Vendor Managed Inventory – Total Program Management whereby Titan can manage all metals requirements through our global distribution network or any portion of it.
Silakan hubungi perwakilan penjualan PT Special Metals Indonesia Anda untuk membahas persyaratan Anda secara lebih rinci.
Small Hole Drilling - Small holes in titanium alloy could be quiet challenging as drill bit could break very easily. In these circumstances you can use our small hole drilling services to drill small holes.
EDM small hole drilling/Super Drilling/Hole popping was originally used for putting in starter holes for the Wire EDM machines. We still use it for this purpose everyday. We can put starter holes in as small as 0.5mm diameter and as deep as 200mm. It doesn't matter if the material is hard or soft, aluminum or titanium or carbide.
Olahan titanium bukan hal yang mudah untuk dikerjakan oleh mesin. Mesin Lepasan Kawat Listrik (EDM) atau biasa disebut Wire Electrical Discharge Machining adalah non-kontak, proses pemotongan industri tanpa tekanan. Dalam kawat EDM, percikan listrik digunakan untuk memotong berbagai jenis bahan elektrik-konduktif, seperti logam, karbida, logam campuran, dan grafit.
Dalam pemotongan kawat EDM, material yang akan dipotong direndam dalam cairan pemotongan dielektrik, biasanya di air deionisasi. Sebuah kawat elektroda tipis ditempatkan di atas material yang akan dipotong dengan menggunakan sistem bimbingan robot CNC. Arus listrik dijalankan melalui kawat, menciptakan percikan listrik dengan panas yang sangat tinggi (8.000 - 12.000 °C). Percikan listrik tersebut memotong bahan dengan menghilangkan kandungan logam melalui peleburan dan penguapan. Sistem robot pemandu kawat ini menghasilkan percikan listrik pada jalur pola pemotongan yang diinginkan, namun kawat tidak menyentuh material. Pada saat yang sama, cairan pemotongan dielektrik mendinginkan material dan menyiram partikel partikel kecil dari potongan itu.
PT Special Metals Indonesia bisa menawarkan layanan pemotongan dengan Tekanan Tinggi Air dengan presisi pada lembaran maupun piringan titanium kami.
Manfaat memotong dengan menggunakan Tekanan Tinggi Air meliputi:
• Tidak terpengaruh area panas pada di mana pemotongan tersebut dibuat
• Tidak ada stres tambahan ke bahan selama proses pemotongan
• Pengurangan penggunaan mesin sekunder, karena toleransi kecil pada ketepatan pemotongan
• Pengurangan konsumsi bahan baku karena terjadi minimal limbah dan pemanfaatan perangkat lunak untuk membantu proses pemotongan
• Kemampuan untuk memotong bagian yang kompleks
• Pemotongan dengan Tekanan Tinggi Air menghasilkan bentuk dan potongan bersih untuk pelanggan kami sehingga menimbulkan penghematan biaya.
Pemotongan gergaji adalah proses pemotongan dasar kami. Pelanggan kami dapat meminta dalam bentuk batang, bilet, lembaran, balok, produk panjang, bulat dan persegi panjang, dipotong sesuai dengan dimensi tertentu. Titan Engineering dapat memenuhi segala permintaan pelanggan. Kami memiliki fasilitas pemotongan dengan gergaji pita dan gergaji piring; keduanya untuk menangani permintaan tinggi dan untuk menambahkan nilai layanan bagi pelanggan kami. Gergaji pita kami dapat menangani bentuk bulat, persegi panjang atau produk persegi yang kami miliki dalam stok. Titan Engineering dapat memotong 1 buah ataupun 10.000 buah sesuai dengan kebutuhan panjang yang anda butuhkan. Tidak ada pekerjaan yang terlalu kecil dan tidak ada pekerjaan yang terlalu besar untuk kami tangani. Fasilitas kami memungkinkan kami untuk memberikan proses pemotongan lebih cepat dari biasa pada bagian pemotongan dimanapun dan pada jumlah berapapun.
PT Special Metals Indonesia dapat memberikan layanan pengasahan atau pemolesan berdasarkan kebutuhan pelanggan. Proses pengasahan ini adalah dengan menghilangkan pemotongan kasar ataupun serpihan secara progresif dari jumlah yang telah ditetapkan dari bahan baku untuk mencapai potongan kasar pabrik. Ini adalah layanan nilai tambah dari Titan Engineering yang mampu ditawarkan kepada pelanggan.
Dalam upaya untuk mengurangi biaya produksi, pelanggan dari Special Metals Indonesia dapat meminta pemolesan dalam bentuk titanium balok. Tujuan dari pelanggan kami adalah untuk menerima produk selesai dari Special Metals Indonesia yang dipoles sesuai dengan spesifikasi mereka. Dengan demikian, Special Metals Indonesia dapat membantu menghilangkan salah satu proses manufaktur yang biasanya pelanggan kami lakukan sendiri.
Beritahukan kami apakah anda memerlukan 6-sisi persegi pemolesan atau atas-bawah sisi pemolesan.
Pemotongan dengan laser pada lembaran titanium dengan spesifikasi dan gambar dari pelanggan adalah salah satu dari banyak pemotongan pilihan yang tersedia khusus untuk pelanggan Special Metals Indonesia. Ketika pelanggan mencari bagian pemotongan dengan tepat, bersih, halus, lurus, pemotongan dengan laser bisa menjadi pilihan yang memenuhi kebutuhan pelanggan. Cukup dengan mengirimkan bagian gambar yang anda butuhkan dan kami akan mengurus semuanya sampai selesai.
Menyediakan produk dengan toleransi ketepatan atau presisi adalah layanan penting bagi banyak pelanggan PT Special Metals Indonesia. Toleransi presisi bisa tercapai melalui proses pengasahan yang merupakan proses pemotongan dimana menghilangkan serpihan kecil (atau garitan) pada bahan. Titan Engineering memiliki kemampuan untuk menyediakan layanan pengasahan pada balok dengan toleransi dari 0,05 mm. PT Special Metals Indonesia juga memiliki kemampuan untuk menyediakan produk presisi datar. Dengan menyediakan produk yang memiliki presisi datar, pelanggan kami dapat menghemat waktu dalam proses produksi mereka.
Hubungi perwakilan PT Special Metals Indonesia anda untuk mendiskusikan kebutuhan pengasahan yang anda butuhkan.
Bisnis utama kami adalah memasok bahan baku titanium. Kami memiliki para pekerja yang berpengalaman dalam mesin presisi serta pengolahan dan pembuatan titanium.
Jika anda memerlukan bantuan dalam memilih mesin pengolah titanium atau fabrikasi, kami dapat merujuk anda ke pemain yang terbaik di industri dimana anda dapat menghubungi mereka secara langsung. Karena sebagian besar pelanggan baik kami adalah toko mesin ataupun perakit, kami senang bisa membantu anda dalam memilih mesin titanium yang cocok untuk proyek anda.
Hal ini penting untuk Special Metals Indonesia bahwa pelanggan kami dapat membeli apa yang mereka butuhkan sehubungan dengan produk dalam bentuk lembaran dan bilahan. Sering kali panjang standar dalam produk lembaran ataupun bilahan tidak memenuhi kebutuhan pelanggan kami, dikarenakan terlalu panjang untuk kebutuhan mereka.
Special Metals Indonesia menawarkan lebar dan panjang yang dapat disesuaikan dalam bentuk lembaran maupun lapisan. Dengan demikian, pelanggan kami akan menyadari manfaat terhindar dari biaya besar karena mereka tidak harus membeli lebih banyak bahan dari bahan yang mereka benar-benar perlukan.
Salah satu rekomendasi penghematan biaya yang kita miliki untuk produk ini adalah dengan meminta pelanggan kita untuk memberikan ukuran bentuk jadi sehingga kita dapat memilih bahan yang khusus untuk satu atau beberapa dari bagian. Hal ini berkorelasi dengan penghematan dalam pembelian bahan baku serta menghasilkan sedikit sisa atau limbah dalam proses pembuatan. Semakin efektif biaya yang kami dapat tawarkan kepada pelanggan kami, pelanggan kami akan lebih kompetitif di pasaran.
PT Special Metals Indonesia menyediakan beragam pengencang, seperti baut Titanium, mur hex, sekrup, kancing berulir, dan ring. Our titanium fasteners are available in a variety of sizes in stock, as well as additional sizes upon request. PT.SMI Titanium fasteners meet aerospace and industrial specifications, and are available in commercially pure grade 2 as well as Grade 5 Ti6Al4V.
Titanium fasteners are best known for being strong, lightweight and corrosion resistant. So they are widely used in petrochemical equipment, electronic appliances, electroplating anodes, UAV, automobiles, motorcycles, bicycles, ships, marine engineering, desalination, outdoor and sporting goods and other fields.
PT. Special Metals Indonesia adalah penyedia titanium & logam khusus Mur, Baut, Rivet, Washer, Nut, Pin, stud bolt, Custom Turned part yang diaplikasikan pada fabrikasi, petrokimia, Oil & Gas, Aerospace, Plating electrolysis, pertambangan dan lain-lain.
• Standards: All DIN specifications & ANSI B18.104.22.168M.
• Size: M3 ~ M36 and All Inch sizes.
• Ukuran / spesifikasi khusus dibuat sesuai kebutuhan pelanggan.
Whatsapp kami untuk lebih jelasnya.
PT Special Metals Indonesia distributes high temperature, corrosion resistant grades of Nickel and Cobalt alloy metals in all forms. Materials are supplied in sheet, plate and bar, pipe, flange, wire forms. Our long standing relationship with the premier mills as well as US, Europe and Japan principals allows us fast deliveries for hard to find metals for the aerospace, petrochemical and electronic industries. We can supply metal in Annealed condition or in Solution Treated & Aged-STA condition.
Our Supply Range:
|418 SS Hardenable chromium-nickel-tungsten martensitic alloy UNS-S-41800 AMS 5508|
|Alloy 13-8 PH 13-8 Mo* stainless is a martensitic precipitation/age-hardening stainless steel|
|Alloy 13-8/H1000 Condition Bar|
|Alloy 15-7 Semi-austenitic precipitation-hardening stainless steel|
|Alloy 188 Cobalt-based alloy|
|Alloy 20 UNS-N08020|
|Alloy 21-6Ni-9Mn High maganese nitrogen strengthened, austenitic stainless steel|
|Alloy 230 UNS N06230|
|Alloy 263 Age-hardenable Nickel/Cobalt/Chromium/Molybdenum alloy|
|Alloy 330 Nickel-chromium austenitic heat and corrosion resisting alloy|
|Nitronic® Alloy 60 Anti-galling stainless steel|
|INCONEL® 600 (UNS N06600) Nonmagnetic, nickel-based high temperature alloy|
|INCONEL® 601 (UNS N06601) Nickel-chromium alloy with an addition of aluminum|
|INCONEL® 617 (UNS N06617) Nickel-chromium-cobalt-molydenum alloy|
|INCONEL® 625 (UNS N06625) Nonmagnetic, corrosion - and oxidation-resistant, nickel-based alloy|
|Alloy 6B Wronght base cobalt alloy|
|INCONEL® 718 precipitation hardenable nickel-based alloy|
|INCONEL® 718 Aged AMS 5663|
|Alloy 800/H/HT Iron-nickel-chromium alloy|
|Alloy 825 Nickel-iron-chromium-molybdenum alloy|
|Alloy 901 Nickel-iron-chromium alloy containing titanium and aluminum|
|Alloy X-750 Precipitation-hardenable alloy|
|Hastelloy® C-22 (HAST-C22) Nickel-molybdenum-chromium-tungsten alloy|
|Hastelloy® C-276 (HAST-C276) Nickel-molybdenum-chromium-tungsten alloy|
|Hastelloy® X (HAST-X)|
|Monel® 400 Nickel-copper solid solution strengthened alloy|
|Monel® K500 Nickel-copper alloy|
|Nickel 200 Commercially pure (99.6%) wrought nickel|
We can provide a bar by the random length, or a whole sheet/bar. Whether your requirement is for FAI approval, prototype or for production, contact us with your requirements. Whatsapp kami untuk lebih jelasnya.
PT Special Metals Indonesia dapat memasok pipa titanium, fitting dan flensa, 316Ti, 904L yang diperlukan untuk semua jalur pipa fabrikasi. Semua flensa dan fiting bersumber dari pabrikan berkualitas yang memiliki reputasi global. For north sea oil and gas platforms, we can supply NORSOK certified flanges of all types. Kami tidak mengambil karya fabrikasi titanium, namun kami dapat merujuk Anda ke bengkel yang berkualitas karena sebagian besar pelanggan kami adalah toko mesin atau pabrikan titanium. Harga pipa titanium kami per meter sangat murah. We understand that titanium and special metals are used in critical applications. We know the importance of "On-Time, Right, the First time".
Special Metals Indonesia supplies Platinized Titanium Anodes and MMO Anodes for Electrochemical and Metal Finishing Industries. We supply MMO Tube anodes with KYNAR/HMWPE/XLPE/PVC cable attached as per customer requirements. Solid round titanium bars coated with MMO are manufactured based on the life expectancy of the anodes. Common applications are:
• Electro dialysis.
• DSA Cathodic Protection.
• Electrochemical Sensing.
• Electro winning and Refining of metals.
• Electrolytic Regeneration of chromic acid.
• Electroplating for precious and base metals.
• Electrolytic recovery for precious and base metals.
• Electrolytic Production of Sodium Hypochlorite.
• Electro synthesis of Inorganic & Organic chemicals
Special Metals Indonesia is a distributor of high quality seamless & welded tubing certified to SA-178 Grade A and SA-214. Specializing in boiler tubes, condenser tubes, heat exchanger tubes, ferrules, and boiler tube plugs. Our customers include mechanical contractors, original equipment manufacturers, fabricators, fertilizer plants, petro-chemical plants, Rayon mills, Paper and Pulp mills, utility power plants, Oil & Gas refineries and other distributors located throughout the South East Asia region. We highly specialize in supplying titanium Gr2 SMLS & welded tubes and special grade alloy materials. Whatsapp your requirements to us.
Kami menjual Kawat Titanium, batang las dan produk lain yang penting untuk proses las titanium. Titanium welding wire is covered by AWS A5.16-70 Specification ("Titanium and Titanium-Alloy Bare Welding Rods and Electrodes"). It is generally good practice to select a filler metal matching the properties and composition of the titanium base metal grade. However, for both commercially pure grades and alloys, selecting a weld wire one strength level below the base metal is also practiced.
ErTi-2 Titanium Grade-2 TIG Welding Rods as per AWS A 5.16: ER Ti 2 - EN ISO 24034: S Ti 0120 (Ti 99,6) - DIN: W.Nr. 3.7036 - DIN 1737: SG Ti 2 - ASTM B348 Gr 2
ErTi-5 Titanium Grade-5 Ti6A4V TIG Welding Rods as per AWS A 5.16: ER Ti 5 - EN ISO 24034: STi-6402c - DIN: W.Nr. 3.7165 - DIN 1737
ErTi-7 Titanium Grade-7 TIG Welding Rods as per AWS A 5.16: ER Ti 7 - UNS: R52401 - EN ISO 24034:STi-2401 - DIN: W.Nr. 3.7235 - DIN 1737
Titanium foils are used in bio-engineering research applications where body tissues, saliva and micro organisms are kept in the titanium foils due to their excellent bio-compatibility and inert nature with living things. Another common use for titanium as a thin foil is in shavers. The windscreen is the application where you most likely can find titanium foil as a non-corporate user. Titanium foil has also been used in making of the camera shutters, a most unseen and unknown device hidden inside a camera that allows light to pass for a short period of time, for the purpose of exposing film or an electronic sensor to light to make a photo. If you’re engaging in making something out of titanium in the form of foil, just remember tha titanium foil is about the same thickness as a sheet of paper. You can build wind shavers, screens, wind screen, camera shutters, or what ever you can imagine.
• Foil Size: Thickness: 0.05/0.1/0.2/0.25/0.3mm. Width: 125/150/300mm
Our range of stainless, high-corrosion and heat-resistant steels offers a variety of products, materials and dimensions. Special stainless steels represent a material group that is situated between the non-corrosive steels and the nickel alloys. These iron-nickel-chromium alloys differ from the ordinary non-corrosive steels by their higher alloying additions of nickel, chromium or molybdenum.
• Stainless Steel 316Ti UNS S31635
• Stainless Steel 317L UNS S31703
• Stainless Steel 904L UNS N08904
• Sheet, Plate, Bar, Pipe and Fittings
• Full plates, sheets, Rings, Discs, According to drawing
• Sheared, Plasma-, Laser- or Waterjet cut to size
• Certification: 3.1, 3.2
Date: 14 – 17 April 2015
Venue: Singapore Expo
Booth No: 3A2-03
MTA-2015 is a bi-annual “must attend” event in Singapore for those who are all associated in Precision Engineering and manufacturing in this region. One can learn about the current trends in machine tools as all the leading machine tool manufacturers will display their latest machinery in this expo.
This year’s event will focus on high-value industries and sectors such as Aerospace, Complex Equipment, Energy, Electronics, Medical Technology and Oil & Gas / Marine & Offshore Engineering.
We are delighted to announce that Titan representatives will be participating in the MTA-2015 trade show. We’ll exhibit some of our latest titanium metal & alloy products. Come and meet us to learn more about our capabilities and how we can meet your titanium & specialty material needs.
MTA 2015 @ Singapore Expo Pictures
Dates: December 3 to 6, 2014.
Venue: Jakarta International Expo, Indonesia
Booth No: D-9108 Hall D2.
We are delighted to announce Titan representatives will be participating in the Manufacturing Indonesia 2014 trade show.
Titan has many customers in Indonesia and in this region. We would like to take this opportunity to meet our customers to strengthen our relationship and to further enhance our range of supply.
We would like to invite you to our after work party on every exhibition days at 5:00 pm at the Coffee Area near our stand. We will together celebrate and enjoy with you in Manufacturing Indonesia 2014. Mark your calender 3-6 December.
Manufacturing Indonesia 2014 at Kemoyoran Jakarta Indonesia Pictures
Tabung Titanium, Pipa dan fiting tersedia dalam tipe Seamless maupun Welded, diproduksi dengan spesifikasi ASTM / ASME dalam berbagai ukuran. Flange types like weld-neck, slip-on, blind, lap joint, threaded and socket weld are available in ASME B16.5 specifications. We supply titanium tubes to leading Oil & Gas industry fabricators to build heat exchangers, air-coolers and other process equipments. Depending upon the requirement of your projects we can supply with ASTM/ASME or NORSOK M630 specifications. For detailed information for Titanium Tubing, please contact your Special Metals Indonesia sales representative.
|High-Grade Stainless Steel|
|Super Alloy Tubing & Seamless Pipe.|
Distributor Batangan Titanium terkemuka di Indonesia.
Kami menjual Round Titanium Batangan produk sesuai ASTM B348/ASME SB348 tersedia di Grades 1, 2, 3, 4, Gr5 (Ti6AL4V) dan nilai titanium lainnya in round bars sizes up to 500 diameter, rectangular and square sizes are also available. Kami menyediakan AMS 4928, AMS 4911, AMS 2631, AMS 4901, AMS 4907, AMS 4919, AMS 6931, AMS T 9046, AMS T 9047, ASTM B 337, ASTM B 338, ASTM B 381, ASTM F 67, ASTM F 136, ASTM B 348, ASTM B265 dan pipa, fittings & flanges with NORSOK M630 Rev 2 MDS T01 specifications for North sea petroleum industry developments dan operations dengan sangat harga murah.
Sebagai distributor titanium terkemuka di Indonesia, kami dapat mensuplai diameter 1.00mm hingga 200mm. Kami memiliki mesin pemotong untuk memotong batang logam sesuai kebutuhan anda. PT.Special Metals Indonesia menawarkan berbagai ukuran batang bundar di banyak jenis logam, kelas dan alloy. Semua produk diperiksa 100% dengan kualitas terjamin dan waktu pengiriman cepat.
Titanium Grade 5, also known as Ti6Al4V, Ti-6Al-4V, Ti 6-4 or R56400 adalah paduan titanium yang paling umum digunakan. Ini memiliki komposisi kimia 6% aluminium, 4% vanadium, 0.25% (maximum) iron, 0.2% (maximum) oxygen, and the remainder titanium. Grade 5 is used extensively in Aerospace, Medical, Marine, and Chemical Processing. It is significantly stronger than commercially pure titanium while having the same stiffness and thermal properties. Among its many advantages, it is heat treatable. This grade has an excellent combination of strength, corrosion resistance, weld and fabricability. In consequence, its uses are numerous such as for military aircraft or turbines. It is also used in surgical implants. Generally, it is used in applications up to 400 degrees Celsius. Its properties are very similar to those of the 300 stainless steel series, especially 316. Ti-6Al-4V is a two phase alpha + beta grade of titanium and is the most widely used of all the titanium grades. USA membuat logam AMS4928 dan AMS4911 ada stok.
|Ti6AL4V Titanium is available in the following Specifications:
DISTRIBUTOR PLAT TITANIUM TERKEMUKA DI INDONESIA.
Kami menjual Plat Titanium / Lembar sesuai ASTM B265 / ASTM SB265 tersedia dalam gred CP dan Alloy. Ketebalan stok kami mulai dari 0,5mm hingga 100 mm. Plat Titanium tersedia dalam ukuran lebar dan panjang berdasarkan kebutuhan pelanggan, kami dapat memotong sesuai kebutuhan anda. Pelanggan hanya dapat membeli ukuran yang mereka butuhkan dan tidak seprei penuh. Kami menyediakan Lembar dan Pelat Titanium dengan harga yang sangat kompetitif dengan kualitas yang baik, dibuat oleh pabrik papan atas.
• Sheets 0.5 ~ 4.0 tk x <1000 Width x <3000 Length
• Plates 4.1 ~ 60.0 tk x <3000 Width x <4000 Length
Titanium and titanium alloys are reduced to plate or sheet by hot rolling. Forged billets are are normally used as the starting material. Rolling is done between about 1500 and 1800 F. Heating is done in air-furnace or argon furnaces. Pack rolling in steel can is often used to obtain thinner sheets. Surfaces are used cleaned of parting compound, oxide and contamination after rolling by combination of grinding, grit blasting, and acid pickling depending on titanium plat/sheet thickness.
Kami adalah distributor plat titanium terkemuka di Indonesia. Kami mensuplai titanium ke Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung, Medan, Semarang, Bekasi, Tangerang, Depok, Palembang dan seluruh Indonesia.
Whatsapp untuk lebih jelasnya. No Minimum Order quantity required.
|CP Grade 1||R50350||CP Grade 2||R50400|
|CP Grade 3||R50550||CP Grade 4||R50700|
|Titanium Grade 6||R54520||CP Grade 7||R52400|
|Titanium Grade 9||R56320||CP Grade 11||R52252|
|CP Grade 12||R53400||CP Grade 16||R52402|
|CP Grade 17||R52252||CP Grade 26||R52404|
|CP Grade 27||R52404||Titanium Grade 28||R56323|
|Titanium Grade 29||R56404||Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al||R56410|
|Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo||R56260||Ti-6Al-4V Grade-5, Ti64||R56400|
Trademark Notice: Some names are trade names and/or trademarks of specific manufacturers. PT Special Metals Indonesia is not affiliated with any manufacturer(s). Orders will be filled to meet specifications from any available source(s). Names are listed solely for reference to help identify products consistent with listed specifications.
Titan Engineering memberikan bahan baku titanium kepada pelanggan, tetapi apa yang kita ingin memberikan adalah menghilangkan "langkah awal" yang biasa di olah pada bahan baku. Kami meneliti bahwa ada banyak pelanggan yang membeli batang/balok dari kami, ketika mereka menerima bahan dari kita, maka "langkah berikutnya" adalah memotong sudut kasar/tajam pada batang/balok.
Titan Engineering melihat ini sebagai kesempatan untuk memberikan "nilai tambah" layanan khususnya pada segmen pelanggan yang biasa membeli bahan berupa batang/balik. Sekarang pelanggan dapat membeli batang atau balok dengan pemotongan sudut yang disesuaikan dengan spesifikasi mereka.
Manfaat kepada pelanggan kami dalam situasi ini adalah bahwa mereka sekarang dapat mengurangi satu proses dari pekerjaan mereka dan mempercepat perputaran waktu kerja. Dengan menawarkan produk yang sudah dihaluskan (chamfered) dapat menciptakan efisiensi proses pengerjaan pada pelanggan kami yang pada akhirnya menciptakan penghematan biaya bagi mereka. Titan Engineering memiliki kemampuan untuk memotong balok batang dalam ukuran yang berkisar dari diameter 3 mm sampai dengan diameter 300 mm, berikut dengan kedalaman 10 mm.
The term commercially pure (CP) titanium is applied to unalloyed titanium and designates several grades containing minor amounts of impurity elements, such as carbon, iron and oxygen. The amount of oxygen can be controlled at various levels to provide increased strength. Grade yang paling umum digunakan adalah grade-2. Komposisi dan sifat dari empat tingkat titanium CP tercantum di bawah ini. komposisi kimia (wt%) and minimum peralatan mekanis untuk CP titanium. Hubungi kami untuk informasi lebih lanjut.
Commercially Pure (CP) Grade 2 Titanium is one of the most common grades of unalloyed titanium. Commercially pure titanium terutama digunakan untuk ketahanan korosi.
CP Grade 2 Titanium is available in the following Specifications:
|AMS 4902, DIN 3.7035||ASTM F67 (Grade-2)|
|ASTM B348 (Grade-2)||AMS-T-9046 (CP-3 Grade 2)|
|ASTM B265 (Grade-2)||MIL-T-9046 (CP-3 Grade 2)|
|Properties||CP Grade 1||CP Grade 2||CP Grade 3||CP Grade 4|
|Yield strength (MPa)||170||275||380||485|
|Ultimate strength (MPa)||240||345||450||550|
We’re excited to share news that Titan Engineering has moved to a new and bigger office location on 19-June-2015. Our new office address is 31 Woodlands Close #06-09, Woodlands Horizon, Singapore 737855, where we will continue to serve our customers in the same friendly manner as before.
Our telephone and fax number & email addresses remain unchanged.